Exchange Q&A: Exchange Administration (15)

1.What should we considering about when designing the network infrastructure for our DAG?

  • Each member of the DAG must have at least one network adapter that’s able to communicate with all other DAG members;
  • Using two network adapters in each DAG member provides you with one MAPI network and one Replication network;
  • Each DAG member must have the same number of networks;
  • Each DAG must have no more than one MAPI network;
  • Additional Replication networks can be added, as needed;
  • Each network in each DAG member server must be on its own network subnet;
  • Regardless of their geographic location relative to other DAG members, each member of the DAG must have round trip network latency no greater than 500 milliseconds between each other member;
  • Round trip latency requirements may not be the most stringent network bandwidth and latency requirement for a multi-datacenter configuration;
  • DAG networks support Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6. IPv6 is supported only when IPv4 is also used; a pure IPv6 environment isn’t supported;
  • Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) is a feature of Windows that automatically assigns IP addresses when no Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server is available on the network.

2.How to configure when network adapter intended for use by a MAPI network?

  • Client for Microsoft Networks: Enabled;
  • QoS Packet Scheduler: Optionally enabled;
  • File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks; Enabled;
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (TCP/IP v6): Enabled;
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (TCP/IP v4): Enabled;
  • Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper I/O Driver: Enabled;
  • Link-Layer Topology Discovery Responder: Enabled.
  • The TCP/IP v4 properties for a MAPI network adapter are configured as follows:
  • The IP address for a DAG member’s MAPI network can be manually assigned or configured to use DHCP. If DHCP is used, we recommend using persistent reservations for the server’s IP address;
  • The MAPI network typically uses a default gateway, although one isn’t required;
  • At least one DNS server address must be configured. Using multiple DNS servers is recommended for redundancy;
  • The Register this connection’s addresses in DNS check box should be selected.

3.How to configure when network adapter intended for use by a replication network?

  • Client for Microsoft Networks: Disabled;
  • QoS Packet Scheduler: Optionally enabled;
  • File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks; Disabled;
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (TCP/IP v6): Enabled;
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (TCP/IP v4): Enabled;
  • Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper I/O Driver: Enabled;
  • Link-Layer Topology Discovery Responder: Enabled.
  • The TCP/IP v4 properties for a Replication network adapter are configured as follows:
  • The IP address for a DAG member’s Replication network can be manually assigned or configured to use DHCP. If DHCP is used, we recommend using persistent reservations for the server’s IP address;
  • Replication networks typically don’t have default gateways, and if the MAPI network has a default gateway, no other networks should have default gateways. Routing of network traffic on a Replication network can be configured by using persistent, static routes to the corresponding network on other DAG members using gateway addresses that have the ability to route between the Replication networks. All other traffic not matching this route will be handled by the default gateway that’s configured on the adapter for the MAPI network;
  • DNS server addresses shouldn’t be configured;
  • The Register this connection’s addresses in DNS check box shouldn’t be selected.

4.What is witness server?

A witness server is a server outside a DAG that’s used to achieve and maintain quorum when the DAG has an even number of members.

5.What questions often requires answering when constructing the appropriate SLAs?

  • What level of service is required after the primary datacenter fails?
  • Do users need their data or just messaging services?
  • How rapidly is data required?
  • How many users must be supported?
  • How will users access their data?
  • What is the standby datacenter activation SLA?
  • How is service moved back to the primary datacenter?
  • Are the resources dedicated to the site resilience solution?

6.What are specific configuration settings that are recommended for DAGs that are extended across multiple sites?

  • MAPI networks should be isolated from Replication networks;
  • Client-facing DNS records should have a Time to Live (TTL) value of 5 minutes;
  • Use static routes to configure connectivity across Replication networks.

7.What are the overall process for deploying Exchange Server in a highly available or site resilient configuration?

  • Create a DAG;
  • If necessary, pre-stage the cluster name object (CNO);
  • Add two or more Mailbox servers to the DAG;
  • Configure the DAG properties as needed;
  • Optionally configure DAG encryption and compression, replication port, DAG IP addresses, and other DAG properties;
  • Enable Datacenter Activation Coordination (DAC) mode for the DAG;
  • Add mailbox database copies across Mailbox servers in the DAG.

8.How to configurate network in our Example?

Run the following command:

netsh interface ipv4 add route 10.0.2.0/24 <NetworkName> 10.0.1.254

netsh interface ipv4 add route 10.0.1.0/24 <NetworkName> 10.0.2.254

9.What are the tasks and commands for example when create and configure a DAG?

Create the DAG:

New-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup -Name DAG1 -WitnessServer MBX5 -WitnessDirectory C:\DAGWitness\DAG1.contoso.com -DatabaseAvailabilityGroupIPAddresses 192.168.1.8,192.168.2.8

Preconfigure an alternate witness server and alternate witness directory:

Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup -Identity DAG1 -AlternateWitnessDirectory C:\DAGWitness\DAG1.contoso.com -AlternateWitnessServer MBX10

Add each of the four Mailbox servers to the DAG:

Add-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer MBX1

Add-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer MBX3

Add-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer MBX2

Add-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer MBX4

Configure the DAG for DAC mode:

Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup -Identity DAG1 -DatacenterActivationMode DagOnly

10.How to create mailbox databases and mailbox databases copies for example?

Four databases per server, one for active copy, two for passive copy (no lag), one for passive copy (lag):

On MBX1:

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB1 -MailboxServer MBX2

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB1 -MailboxServer MBX4

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB1 -MailboxServer MBX3 -ReplayLagTime 3.00:00:00 -SeedingPostponed

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB1\MBX3 -SuspendComment “Seed from MBX4” -Confirm:$False

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB1\MBX3 -SourceServer MBX4

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB1\MBX3 -ActivationOnly

On MBX2:

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB2 -MailboxServer MBX1

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB2 -MailboxServer MBX3

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB2 -MailboxServer MBX4 -ReplayLagTime 3.00:00:00 -SeedingPostponed

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB2\MBX4 -SuspendComment “Seed from MBX3” -Confirm:$False

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB2\MBX4 -SourceServer MBX3

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB2\MBX4 -ActivationOnly

On MBX3:

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB3 -MailboxServer MBX4

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB3 -MailboxServer MBX2

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB3 -MailboxServer MBX1 -ReplayLagTime 3.00:00:00 -SeedingPostponed

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB3\MBX1 -SuspendComment “Seed from MBX2” -Confirm:$False

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB3\MBX1 -SourceServer MBX2

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB3\MBX1 -ActivationOnly

On MBX4:

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB4 -MailboxServer MBX3

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB4 -MailboxServer MBX1

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB4 -MailboxServer MBX2 -ReplayLagTime 3.00:00:00 -SeedingPostponed

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB4\MBX2 -SuspendComment “Seed from MBX1” -Confirm:$False

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB4\MBX2 -SourceServer MBX1

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DB4\MBX2 -ActivationOnly

Still have questions? Click here to view Microsoft’s official documentation on Exchange.

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